Automatic Violin Synthesis Using Expressive Musical Term Features
The control of interpretational properties such as duration, vibrato, and dynamics is important in music performance. Musicians continuously manipulate such properties to achieve different expressive intentions. This paper presents a synthesis system that automatically converts a mechanical, deadpan interpretation to distinct expressions by controlling these expressive factors. Extending from a prior work on expressive musical term analysis, we derive a subset of essential features as the control parameters, such as the relative time position of the energy peak in a note and the mean temporal length of the notes. An algorithm is proposed to manipulate the energy contour (i.e. for dynamics) of a note. The intended expressions of the synthesized sounds are evaluated in terms of the ability of the machine model developed in the prior work. Ten musical expressions such as Risoluto and Maestoso are considered, and the evaluation is done using held-out music pieces. Our evaluations show that it is easier for the machine to recognize the expressions of the synthetic version, comparing to those of the real recordings of an amateur student. While a listening test is under construction as a next step for further performance validation, this work represents to our best knowledge a first attempt to build and quantitatively evaluate a system for EMT analysis/synthesis.