On the Impact of Ground Sound
Rigid-body impact sound synthesis methods often omit the ground sound. In this paper we analyze an idealized ground-sound model based on an elastodynamic halfspace, and use it to identify scenarios wherein ground sound is perceptually relevant versus when it is masked by the impacting object’s modal sound or transient acceleration noise. Our analytical model gives a smooth, closed-form expression for ground surface acceleration, which we can then use in the Rayleigh integral or in an “acoustic shader” for a finite-difference time-domain wave simulation. We find that when modal sound is inaudible, ground sound is audible in scenarios where a dense object impacts a soft ground and scenarios where the impact point has a low elevation angle to the listening point.