A Minimal Passive Model of the Operational Amplifier: Application to Sallen-Key Analog Filters
This papers stems from the fact that, whereas there are passive models of transistors and tubes, a minimal passive model of the operational amplifier does not seem to exist. A new behavioural model is presented that is memoryless, fully described by its interaction ports, with a minimal number of equations, for which a passive power balance can be defined. The proposed model handles saturation, asymmetric power supply, and can be used with nonideal voltage references. To illustrate the model in audio applications, the non-inverting voltage amplifier and a saturating Sallen-Key lowpass filter are considered.