Tunable Collisions: Hammer-String Simulation with Time-Variant Parameters

Maarten van Walstijn; Vasileios Chatziioannou; Abhiram Bhanuprakash
DAFx-2023 - Copenhagen
In physical modelling synthesis, articulation and tuning are effected via time-variation in one or more parameters. Adopting hammered strings as a test case, this paper develops extended forms of such control, proposing a numerical formulation that affords online adjustment of each of its scaled-form parameters, including those featuring in the one-sided power law for modelling hammerstring collisions. Starting from a modally-expanded representation of the string, an explicit scheme is constructed based on quadratising the contact energy. Compared to the case of time-invariant contact parameters, updating the scheme’s state variables relies on the evaluation of two additional analytic partial derivatives of the auxiliary variable. A numerical energy balance is derived and the numerical contact force is shown to be strictly non-adhesive. Example results with time-variant tension and time-variant contact stiffness are detailed, and real-time viability is demonstrated.