Robust multipich estimation for the analysis and manipulation of polyphonic musical signals
A method for the estimation of the multiple pitches of concurrent musical sounds is described. Experimental data comprised sung vowels and the whole pitch range of 26 musical instruments. Multipitch estimation was performed at the level of a single time frame for random pitch and sound source combinations. Note error rates for mixtures ranging from one to six simultaneous sounds were 2.1 %, 2.4 %, 3.8 %, 8.1 %, 12 %, and 18 %, respectively. In musical interval and chord identification tasks, the algorithm outperformed the average of ten trained musicians. Particular emphasis was laid on robustness in the presence of other sounds and noise. The algorithm is based on an iterative estimation and separation procedure and is able to resolve at least a couple of most prominent pitches even in ten sound polyphonies. Sounds that exhibit inharmonicities can be handled without problems, and the inharmonicity factor and spectral envelope of each sound is estimated along with the pitch. Examples are given of musical signal manipulations that become possible with the proposed method.