Analytical Features for the Classification of Percussive Sounds: The Case of the Pandeiro
There is an increasing need for automatically classifying sounds for MIR and interactive music applications. In the context of supervised classification, we describe an approach that improves the performance of the general bag-of-frame scheme without loosing its generality. This method is based on the construction and exploitation of specific audio features, called analytical, as input to classifiers. These features are better, in a sense we define precisely than standard, general features, or even than ad hoc features designed by hand for specific problems. To construct these features, our method explores a very large space of functions, by composing basic operators in syntactically correct ways. These operators are taken from the Mathematical and Audio Processing domains. Our method allows us to build a large number of these features, evaluate and select them automatically for arbitrary audio classification problems. We present here a specific study concerning the analysis of Pandeiro (Brazilian tambourine) sounds. Two problems are considered: the classification of entire sounds, for MIR applications, and the classification of attacks portions of the sound only, for interactive music applications. We evaluate precisely the gain obtained by analytical features on these two problems, in comparison with standard approaches.