Download A general-purpose deep learning approach to model time-varying audio effects
Audio processors whose parameters are modified periodically over time are often referred as time-varying or modulation based audio effects. Most existing methods for modeling these type of effect units are often optimized to a very specific circuit and cannot be efficiently generalized to other time-varying effects. Based on convolutional and recurrent neural networks, we propose a deep learning architecture for generic black-box modeling of audio processors with long-term memory. We explore the capabilities of deep neural networks to learn such long temporal dependencies and we show the network modeling various linear and nonlinear, time-varying and time-invariant audio effects. In order to measure the performance of the model, we propose an objective metric based on the psychoacoustics of modulation frequency perception. We also analyze what the model is actually learning and how the given task is accomplished.
Download Antiderivative Antialiasing for Stateful Systems
Nonlinear systems, like e.g. guitar distortion effects, play an important role in musical signal processing. One major problem encountered in digital nonlinear systems is aliasing distortion. Consequently, various aliasing reduction methods have been proposed in the literature. One of these is based on using the antiderivative of the nonlinearity and has proven effective, but is limited to memoryless systems. In this work, it is extended to a class of stateful systems which includes but is not limited to systems with a single one-port nonlinearity. Two examples from the realm of virtual analog modeling show its applicability to and effectiveness for commonly encountered guitar distortion effect circuits.
Download Fast Approximation of the Lambert W Function for Virtual Analog Modelling
When modelling circuits one has often to deal with equations containing both a linear and an exponential part. If only a single exponential term is present or predominant, exact or approximate closed-form solutions can be found in terms of the Lambert W function. In this paper, we propose reformulating such expressions in terms of the Wright Omega function when specific conditions are met that are customary in practical cases of interest. This eliminates the need to compute an exponential term at audio rate. Moreover, we propose simple and real-time suitable approximations of the Omega function. We apply our approach to a static and a dynamic nonlinear system, obtaining digital models that have high accuracy, low computational cost, and are stable in all conditions, making the proposed method suitable for virtual analog modelling of circuits containing semiconductor devices.
Download A Minimal Passive Model of the Operational Amplifier: Application to Sallen-Key Analog Filters
This papers stems from the fact that, whereas there are passive models of transistors and tubes, a minimal passive model of the operational amplifier does not seem to exist. A new behavioural model is presented that is memoryless, fully described by its interaction ports, with a minimal number of equations, for which a passive power balance can be defined. The proposed model handles saturation, asymmetric power supply, and can be used with nonideal voltage references. To illustrate the model in audio applications, the non-inverting voltage amplifier and a saturating Sallen-Key lowpass filter are considered.
Download Towards Inverse Virtual Analog Modeling
Several digital signal processing approaches, generally referred to as Virtual Analog (VA) modeling, are currently under development for the software emulation of analog audio circuitry. The main purpose of VA modeling is to faithfully reproduce the behavior of real-world audio gear, e.g., distortion effects, synthesizers or amplifiers, using efficient algorithms. In this paper, however, we provide a preliminary discussion about how VA modeling can be exploited to infer the input signal of an analog audio system, given the output signal and the parameters of the circuit. In particular, we show how an inversion theorem known in circuit theory, and based on nullors, can be used for this purpose. As recent advances in Wave Digital Filter (WDF) theory allow us to implement circuits with nullors in a systematic fashion, WDFs prove to be useful tools for inverse VA modeling. WDF realizations of a nonlinear audio system and its inverse are presented as an example of application.
Download Digital Grey Box Model of the Uni-Vibe Effects Pedal
This paper presents a digital grey box model of a late 1960s era Shin-ei Uni-Vibe(r) 1 analog effects foot pedal. As an early phase shifter, it achieved wide success in popular music as a unique musical effect, noteworthy for its pulsating and throbbing modulation sounds. The Uni-Vibe is an early series all-pass phaser effect, where each first-order section is a discrete component phase splitter (no operational amplifiers). The dynamic sweeping movement of the effect arises from a single LFO-driven incandescent lamp opto-coupled to the light dependent resistors (LDRs) of each stage. The proposed method combines digital circuit models with measured LDR characteristics for the four phase shift stages of an original Uni-Vibe unit, resulting in an efficient emulation that preserves the character of the Uni-Vibe. In modeling this iconic effect, we also aim to offer some historical and technical insight into the exact nature of its unique sound.
Download Sound Source Separation in the Higher Order Ambisonics Domain
In this article we investigate how the local Gaussian model (LGM) can be applied to separate sound sources in the higher-order ambisonics (HOA) domain. First, we show that in the HOA domain, the mathematical formalism of the local Gaussian model remains the same as in the microphone domain. Second, using an off-the shelf source separation toolbox (FASST) based on the local Gaussian model, we validate the efficiency of the approach in the HOA domain by comparing the performance of toolbox in the HOA domain with its performance in the microphone domain. To do this we discuss and run some simulations to ensure a fair comparison. Third, we check the efficiency of the local Gaussian model compared to other available source separation techniques in the HOA domain. Simulation results show that separating sources in the HOA domain results in a 1 to 12 dB increase in signal-to-distortion ratio, compared to the microphone domain. Multichannel source separation, local Gaussian model, Wiener filtering, 3D audio, Higher Order Ambisonics (HOA).
Download Directional Source Simulation in FDTD Room Acoustic Modeling via Weighted First-Order Reflections
This paper proposes a means of simulating directional sources in Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) based acoustic models for impulse response (IR) calculation which, unlike other currently available methods, is able to accommodate highly irregular directivity patterns. Weighted numerical free-field IRs are applied to the simulation of first-order reflections at the boundaries of a modeled acoustic domain such that the continuing interior wave field is that which would be produced by a directional sound source. Numerical results demonstrate the application of this approach for a 2-Dimensional wave field, implementing both simple and irregular (e.g. highly directional, discontinuous) sound source directivity patterns.
Download First-Order Ambisonic Coding with PCA Matrixing and Quaternion-Based Interpolation
We present a spatial audio coding method which can extend existing speech/audio codecs, such as EVS or Opus, to represent first-order ambisonic (FOA) signals at low bit rates. The proposed method is based on principal component analysis (PCA) to decorrelate ambisonic components prior to multi-mono coding. The PCA rotation matrices are quantized in the generalized Euler angle domain; they are interpolated in quaternion domain to avoid discontinuities between successive signal blocks. We also describe an adaptive bit allocation algorithm for an optimized multi-mono coding of principal components. A subjective evaluation using the MUSHRA methodology is presented to compare the performance of the proposed method with naive multi-mono coding using a fixed bit allocation. Results show significant quality improvements at bit rates in the range of 52.8 kbit/s (4 × 13.2) to 97.6 kbit/s (4 × 24.4) using the EVS codec.
Download Real-Time Physical Modelling For Analog Tape Machines
For decades, analog magnetic tape recording was the most popular method for recording music, but has been replaced over the past 30 years first by DAT tape, then by DAWs and audio interfaces. Despite being replaced by higher quality technology, many have sought to recreate a "tape" sound through digital effects, despite the distortion, tape "hiss", and other oddities analog tape produced. The following paper describes the general process of creating a physical model of an analog tape machine starting from basic physical principles, then discusses in-depth a real-time implementation of a physical model of a Sony TC-260 tape machine."Whatever you now find weird, ugly, uncomfortable, and nasty about a new medium will surely become its signature. CD distortion, the jitteriness of digital video, the crap sound of 8-bit - all of these will be cherished and emulated as soon as they can be avoided." -Brian Eno.